Categories Of Surgical Instruments

Waleed Alabsi demonstrates that this type of equipment is used to hold an incision or wound open, hold an organ or tissue out of the way to reveal what’s under. Self-restraining retractors have a screw, ratchet, or clamp to hold the

Waleed Alabsi recommends a few things to consider when selecting surgical products such as:

  1. What is the procedure being done? Picking the correct surgical instrument can go a long way in determining the success of the surgical technique
  2. What is the size of the subject being performed?
  3. How often will the instrument be used during the procedure?

Categories of Surgical Instruments

Surgical products can be classified based on the function to be performed. This categorization includes:

  1. Cutting instruments such as scissors, knives surgical blades, and scalpels
  2. Grasping or holding equipment such as tissue forceps and hemostatic forceps
  3. Retractors, which are used to open or hold an organ or tissue out of the way, such as Weitlaner and Gelpi.

Cutting Instruments

Scissors are cutting instruments that have two blades that are joined together at a pivot enabling the sharp edges to glide against each other to shear material between the blades.

Waleed Alabsi recommends that when selecting the appropriate pair of surgical scissors, keep in mind the following:

  1. Fine tip scissors are ideal for use in spaces that provide restricted movement. They are designed for ophthalmologic procedures that require delicate tissue incision. They provide for quick accurate cuts with minimal tissue damage.
  2. When you want to avoid cutting underlying tissues, use curve-tipped scissors.
  3. Scissors with a heavier construction are utilized in cutting fur, thicker vessels, or tissue.
  4. The depth of the incision is considered as it determines the length of the scissor tips.
  5. Scissors with tungsten carbide inserts are more durable, hold an edge longer and last longer than instruments made of stainless steel.

Some well known common types of scissors according to Waleed Alabsi include:

Vannas scissors. They are delicate spring scissors. They are perfect for right or left-hand use, are used frequently in ophthalmic and neurosurgical procedures, and work well under a dissection microscope.

Castroviejo scissors were designed for use in ophthalmologic applications that require a delicate incision of tissue. They make sure minimal tissue damage is done while making quick, accurate cuts.

McPherson-Vannas are a type of scissors that are surgical medical products designed for ophthalmologic procedures that require fine delicate blades for intricate work.

Grasping Instruments

According to Waleed Alabsi, surgical forceps are broadly divided into two categories. These are the ring forceps (also called hemostats, hemostatic forceps, and locking forceps) and the thumb forceps (frequently called tweezers or pinning forceps).

While selecting forceps, consider the following:

  1. Reverse forceps provide uniform tension since they are self-closing and you have to squeeze them to open them.
  2. For non-porous, corrosion, and heat resistant forceps consider the ceramic tipped forceps.
  3. For general precision work consider the forceps with straight tips, slightly curved or full curved tips for more visibility.
  4. Ceramic tipped forceps are non-porous, corrosion and heat resistant, and insulated.
  5. Forceps with straight tips are used for general precision work, and slightly curved or fully curved tips provide more visibility

Ring forceps also called hemostats or locking forceps, are used for grasping, holding firmly, or exerting traction on the body tissue especially during delicate operations. They are hinged, look like ring scissors and have a locking mechanism called a ratchet, which is used for clamping.

Thumb forceps are surgical medical products used for grasping, holding, or manipulating body tissue by compression between your thumb and forefinger. The two broad categories of thumb forceps include the dressing forceps and tissue forceps. Dressing forceps are especially used when dressing wounds or removing dressings. Tissue forceps have teeth providing a better grip on tissues while minimizing tissue damage.


Waleed Alabsi demonstrates that this type of equipment is used to hold an incision or wound open, hold an organ or tissue out of the way to reveal what’s under. Self-restraining retractors have a screw, ratchet, or clamp to hold the tissue while wire retractors have some spring that enables the surgeon to pinch it together, position, and release it.

Waleed Alabsi recommends doing proper care and handling of your medical instruments to improve their longevity and function. You must choose a protocol that is appropriate for your environment.

Waleed Alabsi recommends doing proper care and handling of your medical instruments to improve their longevity and function. You must choose a protocol that is appropriate for your environment.

Cleaning Techniques:

The following techniques are to be used in the cleaning of surgical products:


This is done immediately after the use of the instruments. rinse the surgical products under warm water to remove all body fluids and tissue. The presence of dried soils may cause damage to the instrument making cleaning very difficult. It is advisable not to use hot water as it will coagulate proteinous substances.

Waleed Alabsi says that temperature, time, and agitation are important factors in the cleaning process. Time affects the efficiency of the cleaning chemicals. Cleaning solutions with higher temperatures result in better cleaning. Manual or ultrasonic agitation helps loosen dried soils on the instrument surface.

Ultrasonic Cleaning:

Of the cleaning methods, Ultrasonic Cleaning is the most effective. It is the result of cavitation. Micron-size bubbles are created by vibrating sounds which grow with alternating pressure. When a resonant size is reached, the bubbles implode. This creates a force that dislodges particles and dirt. The cavitation rate is greatly improved by the use of ultrasonic detergent as opposed to plain water.

Procedure for Ultrasonic Cleaning:       

According to Waleed Alabsi, utilize the following process while doing ultrasonic

  1. As per manufacturer recommendations, mix enzymatic or other neutral pH or a mild alkaline detergent.
  2. If available, use deionized water.
  3. Degas the solution by running the ultrasonic cleaner for several minutes to obtain the correct temperature.
  4. Place the instruments in an open position in the ultrasonic cleaner. Surgical medical products with sharp blades should not be allowed to come into contact with other instruments. fully submerge the instruments.
  5. Dissimilar metals should not be placed in the same cleaning cycle.
  6. The instruments should be processed in the cleaner for about 5 to 10 minutes.
  7. Use water to rinse instruments to remove the ultrasonic cleaning solution and any other remaining dirt
  8. Using a clean towel thoroughly dry the instruments. this procedure reduces the risk of the formation of water spots and corrosion.
  9. To improve the function of the instrument, use spray lubricant in the hinges.

Automatic Washer Sterilizers:

Waleed Alabsi recommends that you lubricate the surgical medical products after the last rinse cycle and before doing the sterilization cycle.

  1. Use a stiff plastic cleaning brush. Do not use wire brushes or wire brushes.
  2. Make use of neutral pH detergents. Low pH detergents may breakdown the stainless protective surface if not rinsed properly and cause black staining. The use of high pH detergents will cause surface deposits of brown stains which can interfere with the operation of the instrument.
  3. Carefully brush delicate instruments and handle them separately from the general instruments.
  4. Check whether all instrument surfaces are visibly clean and free of tissue and stains. Inspect for proper function and condition.
  5. Thoroughly rinse the instruments under running water.
  6. Using a clean towel, thoroughly dry instruments.


Use a corrosion inhibiting detergent to soak large non-delicate instruments when other cleaning methods are not practical. It is recommended to rinse and dry after soaking.



  1. Instruments that have metal-to-metal action should be lubricated.
  2. You can autoclave the instruments individually or in sets.
  3. Do not lock an instrument during autoclaving as this will prevent the steam from reaching and sterilizing the metal-to-metal surfaces.
  4. Make sure you do not overload the autoclave chamber
  5. Excess moisture formed can be absorbed by placing a towel on the bottom of the pan
  6. After the autoclave cycle unlocks the autoclave door. Perform the dry cycle for the recommended period by the autoclave manufacturer.

Cold Sterilization:

According to Waleed Alabsi, to render instruments sterile most cold sterilization solutions require a 10-hour immersion. For instruments with inserts made of tungsten carbide, do not use solutions that contain benzyl ammonium chloride.

Other Medical Services

Every necessary surgical product must be available in your operating room while conducting a surgery. We take the responsibility to keep everything within your reach, which helps you dedicatedly perform your operations. You will get a complete solution from us for obtaining all required surgical products, from tables and trays to disposable bins. Maintaining superior quality, we deliver products that will meet your all needs.